In order to access GitHub repos, you'll need to setup your SSH correctly.
In your shell (use Git Bash if you are on Windows), type in the following:
ssh -T email@example.com # -T means testing
The response will inform you whether your SSH access to GitHub is already setup. If it gives back something like:
Hi <user>! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.
Then you are good to go, otherwise, we'll need to do the following:
If this is the first time you are connecting to GitHub, you will also see a variant of the following message:
The authenticity of host 'github.com (22.214.171.124)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
It means that SSH has no information on the site, and wants you to verify the key fingerprint presented.
The key fingerprint (bolded above) could be different as GitHub uses two different keys, plus there are two different display formats.
You can find GitHub's SSH key fingerprint here. Ensure that what's shown matches one of them, and answer
yesonly when it does.
To create an SSH key, type in the following into your shell.
ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C <type your email address here>
ssh-keygen will then walk you through a Q&A session to generate your SSH key file.
If you just press
ENTER when you see that, you'll save the key to the default location with the default file name of
The default locations for storing SSH related information is in the
.ssh directory, which is located in your
HOME directory (type
echo $HOME in your shell to see where that is).
In Windows, it's
/c/Users/<your user name>. In OS X, it's
/Users/<your user name>, and in Linux it's
/home/<your user name>. It's possible to change them.
So the default location of the file is
$HOME/.ssh/id_rsa (for keys with the type of
rsa, which we specified in the command with
It's fine if you only have a single server you need to SSH, but in this program we will be using multiple SSH keys, so it's best if you don't use the default name, and instead, name it something descriptive.
Usually that means using the hostname of the server you are accessing, so in this case it's
Type in the following:
<your home directory spelled out>/.ssh/<the new file name, such as github.com>
So if you are on Windows, it'd be:
You'll need to type out the full path, as it seems that
ssh-keygen does not recognize any relative paths formats.
You can choose to password protect your key file, which will encrypt it and can only unlock with your password.
This will cause you to have to enter the password every time you use the key file, which kind of defeats the purpose of the key file in the first place. There is however a solution to this problem, and it involves the use of
ssh-agent, and we will talk about it later.
If you choose no password, the key file will be unencrypted and will solely rely on your operating system's protection, so it means that you'll need to secure your development machine. This is usually a good enough solution, but it's of course your call of which way you go.
Do the same as step 2. After this step your key file will be created and saved at the location you specified.
If you open the folder
$HOME/.ssh, you'll see that there are two files created.
<your key file>
<your key file>.pub
The reason is that
rsa is an asymmetric encryption system, which has both a private key (which is
<your key file>), and a public key (
<your key file>.pub).
It's the content of the
<your key file>.pub that we want to upload to GitHub.
<your key file>.pub.
Settings, and then go to
SSH and GPG keys.
New SSH Key
Add SSH Key
You should be able to see a new key added to your GitHub account.
As stated earlier that we will be using multiple SSH keys, the easiest way to do so is to create and use a SSH config file.
SSH Config file exist at the location of
$HOME/.ssh/config, so we'll need to be sure that we save the file to that exact location.
Add the following to the SSH Config file and save.
Host github.com Hostname github.com User git IdentityFile ~/.ssh/<your key file> IdentitiesOnly yes
If you use empty password for your key file, now you can test access again:
ssh -T firstname.lastname@example.org
And you should see it succeed.
If you have chosen a password, you can still test but it'll prompt you for a password. To get rid of the prompting, you can now use
eval $(ssh-agent -s)
Which will start the
ssh-agent, and then you can add the key via:
ssh-add ~/.ssh/<your key file>
As this is per shell session, it means that you'll need to repeat the process if you were to open a new shell. To automate the process, you'll need to modify your
.bashrc file) with the following:
if [ -z "$SSH_AUTH_SOCK" ] ; then eval `ssh-agent -s` ssh-add ~/.ssh/<your key file> fi
So they will be run with every new shell session.